ASTS develops position statements on transplant issues. Transplantation is a rapidly advancing field, and statements are periodically revised.
ASTS Statement on Conscious DCD
Drafted by the ASTS Ethics Committee and finalized by the ASTS Executive Committee, June 2020
The issue of conscious DCD came forth to the leadership of the ASTS from a member who inquired whether the ASTS had a policy that would help guide members through these potentially emotionally charged situations. The leadership asked the Ethics Committee to address the member’s concern.
Definition of the problem:
There may be clinical situations in which the patient is able to communicate his/her wishes to be an organ donor upon actions that the patient desires the medical team to make that would facilitate death. Such conditions would include high c-spine fracture and cord injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
ASTS Principles Regarding Conscious DCD
- Donation from the conscious donor who dies after withdrawal of ventilator support with either a high c-spine fracture or with an illness such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is ethically appropriate based on the ethical principle of Autonomy.
- If members or programs feel an ethical or moral obligation to not participate in this donation process, they should be able to decline to participate in the process of donation or the utilization of organs from such donations without penalty.
- Programs or members who decline to participate in the process of donation and utilization of organs from the “conscious donor” should prospectively notify the Organ Procurement Organization, which is responsible for identifying a willing surgeon or program.
- In the acutely injured patient, it is likely that deferment of authorization of donation should take into account the emotional vulnerability of the injured patient and how it may impact decision-making. There should be a “cooling off” period between injury/diagnosis and the decision to initiate action that would lead to death and donation.
- There is a need for assurance that processes are in place to proceed with DCD donation in an ethically and clinically appropriate circumstance through the OPO.
- ASTS members should adhere to the dead donor rule.
- ASTS members do not condone euthanasia or assisted suicide.
- ASTS members are compelled to maintain the public trust.
ASTS Statement on NKR Advanced Donation Program Drafted by the ASTS Ethics Committee and finalized by the ASTS Executive Committee, November 2017
The ASTS Ethics Committee was asked to opine on whether or not the NKR Advanced Donation Program constitutes “valuable consideration.” The ASTS is strongly in support of novel efforts to remove disincentives to live organ donation to increase the organ supply. In that the NKR Advanced Donation Program strives to remove such disincentives, the Society sees this program as in line with our goals and values. The success of the NKR program will be dependent upon the resolution of a number of logistical, operational, legal, and other challenges. Until these challenges have been vetted, and adequately addressed, the ASTS recommends that interested individuals proceed with caution. The question of whether advanced donation represents valuable consideration is a legal issue, and therefore, outside the purview of the ASTS. Additionally, the ASTS does not endorse any specific KPD program over the others, but rather sees KPD as an under-utilized avenue to increase access to transplantation.
ASTS Position on Global Kidney Exchanges
Drafted and finalized by the ASTS Executive Committee, October 2017
ASTS supports efforts to increase access to transplantation by increasing the organ supply and by removing biologic, logistical, geographical, and financial barriers. ASTS supports efforts by the global transplant community to increase access to transplant care through kidney exchanges across national boundaries. ASTS also supports constructive engagement with transplant stakeholders in the developing world. In that regard, the Society supports the conceptual basis behind Global Kidney Exchanges. Further, we commend Dr. Rees and colleagues for their creativity, integrity, beneficence, and tireless efforts to pioneer Global Kidney Exchange to demonstrate its feasibility. The Society acknowledges that there is potential for abuse, particularly in regard to patient selection, coercion, and equitable participation. ASTS encourages further investigation into the ethics, logistics, governance, and financial aspects of Global Kidney Exchange.
ASTS Position on Health Care Reform
Drafted and finalized by the ASTS Executive Committee, July 2017
The American Society of Transplant Surgeons is committed to supporting the health care needs of organ transplant patients, living organ donors, and those with end stage organ disease. To that end, ASTS strongly believes that health care should be accessible for all our patients. Specifically, we believe that the following principles should be carefully considered before making any changes to the health care system in the United States.
- Living organ donors should not suffer discrimination or financial burdens associated with their act of altruism. Donating an organ should never be a reason to charge higher premiums for health insurance or deny life or disability insurance.
- Transplantation is the treatment of choice for end stage organ disease, resulting in better health outcomes and cost savings for the payor over the mid- to long-term than other treatment options. There is no valid medical or financial argument for excluding it from insurance coverage.
- Transplant patients and those with end stage organ disease, particularly those on dialysis, can experience variations in their Medicaid eligibility and thus coverage gaps. ASTS believes this vulnerable patient population should be exempted from any insurance coverage requirements that may endanger their access to care and thus their lives.
ASTS urges Congress and the Administration to work with provider and patient groups to craft solutions to ensure meaningful coverage is available to this vulnerable population.
ASTS Statement on Executive Order on Immigration
Drafted and finalized by the ASTS Executive Committee, January 2017
In the American Society of Transplant Surgeons’ 43-year history, our members have trained hundreds of surgeons from around the world in pursuit of our mission to advance the art and science of transplant surgery. Many of our members were born outside the United States and have contributed richly to science and healing of people of all colors and religions. Banning visitors and legal immigrants due to origin and religion is inconsistent with our values as Transplant Surgeons and Americans. We call upon the Administration to carefully consider all factors, including the wellbeing of our patients and colleagues, in making and enforcing immigration policy going forward.
ASTS Statement of Professionalism May 2015
PDF, 101.80 KB
Recent Living Donor Death June 12, 2012
PDF, 61.61 KB
Transplantation of Organs from HIV Infected Deceased Donors July 22, 2011
PDF, 133.54 KB
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ASTS Confidentiality and Conflict of Interest Policy
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Non-ASTS Fellows in Parallel Tracks at ASTS Accredited Programs June 30, 2009
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Recommended Guidelines for Controlled DCD Organ Procurement and Transplantation May 11, 2009
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Proposal - Health Insurance as Incentive for Living Kidney Donation February 6, 2009
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Draft - Definition of a Transplant Surgeon December 11, 2008
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Procuring Surgeon Criteria July 25, 2008
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Volunteer Non Directed Live Donations June 1, 2008
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Fellowship Workload Practices January 24, 2008
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Paired Kidney Donation May 29, 2007
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Directed Donation and Solicitation of Donor Organs October 23, 2006
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Live Vascular Grafts January 15, 2005
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